Another Gestalt concept is Similarity. We reviewed many more in lecture the second week of classes.
SIMILARITY: Things that are similar tend to be grouped together. They do not necessarily need to be physically grouped like proximity.
Both examples show grouping via similarity. In the first example, you can see the 24 circles and 40 squares individually, but your mind will more efficiently group and see lines of squares and 3 lines of circles. In the second example, you can see 36 separate squares and 13 separate circles, but your mind prefers to see it as 4 blocks with a crossed "line" made by the circles.
Remember that this is what is meant by "THE WHOLE IS GREATER THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS".
This image uses similarity to group the produce. Though it is technically also proximity, the similarity aspect of color does the stronger grouping. We can still see the individual pieces of produce, but our mind helps us to simplify our world by grouping. "THE WHOLE IS GREATER THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS."
The example allows us to group the similar shape and color of the toes of the shoes vs. the canvas bodies. (This example also shows strong Closure and Figure-Ground, which we briefly discussed in class and will be examined in the upcoming weeks on this blog.)