After you've gone through rounds of revisions on the computer, PRE-PRESS FILE PREP is the next step. Preparing a digital file to go to press, whether that be OfficeMax or (more importantly!) an offset press, is an important step in the process. If not executed properly, unnecessary costs and missed deadlines occur.
Even designers who have done this many times often use a File Prep Checklist to double-check all steps have been taken. Though things like correct color modes and DPI come naturally via experience, pre-press is a final step that must be respected.
Please see the following links to informative sites or PDFs that are a good start to creating your own checklist. Students who are in ART-2413 Typography will become more familiar with pre-press file prep in ART-2423 Print & Publication Design.
NO SAMPLES; HOWEVER, STUDENTS MUST PRINT THE PDF AND ADHERE IN THEIR SKETCHBOOK.
"A Gutenberg Diagram is a diagram that describes the general pattern followed by the eyes when looking at evenly distributed, homogenous information [please note that this follows Western reading patterns, suggesting there is a connection with the way that words are read from top left across a page with the ending of the page in the bottom right.]....Designs that follow the diagram work in harmony with reading gravity and return readers to a logical axis of organization, improving reading rhythm and comprehension...
The Gutenberg Diagram divides a display medium into 4 quadrants: the primary area at the top left, the terminal area at the bottom right, the strong fallow area at the top right, and the weak fallow area at the bottom left. Western readers begin naturally at the primary optical area and move across and down the display medium in a series of sweeps to the terminal area. Each sweep begins along an axis of orientation- a horizontal line created by aligned elements, text lines, or explicit segments - and proceeds in a left-to-right direction. The strong and weak fallow areas lie outside this path and receive minimal attention unless visually emphasized. The tendency to follow this path is metaphorically attribute to reading gravity ("gravity of the page") - the top left to bottom right habit formed in readers.
The Gutenberg Diagram is likely only one predictive of eye movement for heavy text information, evenly distributed and homogenous information, and blank pages or displays. In other cases, the weight of the elements of the design in concert with their layout and composition will direct eye movements. Consider the Gutenberg Diagram to assist in layout and composition."
There is not significant empirical evidence that it contributes to improved reading rates or comprehension; however, it is still considered an important design theory. - Universal Principle of Design by Ludwell, Hkoden, Butler.
STUDENTS: ONE SAMPLE OF THE USE OF THE GUTENBERG DIAGRAM
Please post below with a website address displaying an image. Then explain how this sample follows the theory proposed by a Gutenberg Diagram. The image does NOT need to have the diagram over the top; however, you must explain how it follows the diagram's Primary Optical Area to the Terminal Area. HINT: Google Print Ad and not Gutenberg Diagram. A good print ad will follow the theory while "Gutenberg Diagram" will just show the diagram.
The golden ratio, also known as the golden proportion, golden mean, golden section, golden number, and divine proportion is the division of a given unit of length into two parts such that the ratio of the shorter to the longer equals the ratio of the longer part to the whole or, when a line is divided such that the ratio of the longer part of the line to the whole is exactly the same ratio as the shorter part of the line is to the longer part.
DaVinci's "The Vitruvian Man" illustrated the Golden Ratio of the human body.
The Golden Rectangle can be used to create a spiral, the Golden Spiral (also see Fibonacci Sequence). Starting with one Golden Rectangle, a second Golden Rectangle can be attached to the first using the longest side of the rectangle, side A as the shortest side B of the next rectangle. To this end the second rectangle is constructed 90 degrees perpendicular to the first rectangle. If this process is continued, called the spiraling of the Golden Rectangle, a curved line can be drawn through the corners of the rectangles creating the Golden Mean spiral. The spiraling of the Golden Mean spiral continues indefinitely in inward and outward directions, it's getting smaller and smaller spiraling inwards and getting bigger and bigger spiraling outwards.
For more information, see this page:http://www.tokenrock.com/explain-golden-ratio-177.html
STUDENTS: OPTIONAL sample of the Golden Ratio or Fibonacci Sequence.
If you post, you will receive extra credit for it. It is not required, but READ and UNDERSTAND these concepts. (This should be a review from studio art courses.)
Balance is concerned with the distribution of visual interest. In other words, what is where in a composition. There are two systems for achieving balance:
Symmetrical balance is also called formal balance because a form (formula) is used. This formula is the usage of a mirror image about a vertical axis. The results look formal, organized and orderly. There is a strong emphasis on the center axis in symmetry since all of the information is reflected from there...
Symmetrical images have a strong sense of unity because at least half of the image is repeated. At the same time they lack variety because only half is unique.
Asymmetry means without symmetry. That by itself has nothing to do with balance. It just means that there are no mirror images in a composition. The term, however, is usually used to describe a kind of balance that does not rely on symmetry: asymmetrical balance. There is no simple formula for achieving balance in asymmetrical balance (hence the term informal balance) so the designer must sense whether or not the composition is balanced.
The composition either looks like it is balanced or it does not. Where does your attention goes when you look at an image? If it seems to wander around more or less evenly, there is probably balance. If you seem to always come back to the same area, and that is not the center of the composition, then the balance is suspect.
Above text paraphrased from http://daphne.palomar.edu/design/bsymm.html and http://daphne.palomar.edu/design/asymm.html
STUDENTS: ONE SAMPLE EACH OF SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE
1.Please post once with a website address displaying symmetrical balance and explain how the sample displays this.
2.Then post again with a website address displaying asymmetrical balance and explain how the sample displays this.
The two do NOT need to be related like the two images above.
The rule of thirds is a guideline which applies to the process of composing visual images such as designs, films, paintings, and photographs. The guideline proposes that an image should be imagined as divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elements should be placed along these lines or their intersections. Proponents of the technique claim that aligning a subject with these points creates more tension, energy and interest in the composition than simply centering the subject would. -text from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_thirds
STUDENTS: ONE SAMPLE OF AN IMAGE USING THE RULE OF THIRDS
Please post below with a website address displaying an image WITHOUT the Power of Thirds guidelines on top. Then explain how this sample displays the correct Power of Thirds.
The Exposure Effect states that repeated exposure to stimuli for which people have neutral feelings will increase the likeability of the stimuli. (Also known as mere exposure effect, repetition-validity effect, frequency-validation effect, truth effect, and repetition effect.) For example, the more a song or slogan is repeated, the more popular it is likely to become. The strongest exposure effects are seen with icons, people, and auditory stimuli. The exposure effect gradually weakens as the number of presentations increases. The exposure effect only applies to things which have a neutral or positive association, as things with a negative association repeated will often amplify negative perception.
Familiarity plays an important role in aesthetic appeal and acceptance. People like things more when frequently exposed to them. For example, initial exposure to Gustave Eiffel with the Eifffel Tower (1st image below), Picasso with his Cubist works (2nd image), and Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim Museum (3rd image) were all met with great resistance. However, now all three are widely accepted as brilliant and beautiful because familiarity with the work increased and resulted in greater popularity and acceptance.
The exposure effect has always been a primary tool of politicians. Ubiquitous positive depictions increase the likability and support of political leaders. Imagine if my Google search for images of President Obama produced multiple images of a confused or angry leader!
-Of course advertising, design, and marketing use the exposure effect constantly. This is where consistency is also important. When something is different from the repeated exposure, the effect is nullified. See the logos below, all of which have gained significant brand equity even to the point of lifestyle identification being intertwined with a brand's persona. Though the logos have changed over the years, there have rarely been significant shifts without consequence.
Beyond logos, advertising can use the exposure effect to enhance perceived credibility and generally enhance the way people think and feel about a message or a product. This can be done with everything from a logo to an entire campaign including advertising, social media, and collateral.
-all text above paraphrased from Universal Principles of Design; Lidwell, Holden, Butler
STUDENTS: NO SAMPLES THIS WEEK.
"The Gestalt LAW OF COMMON FATE states that humans perceive visual elements that move in the same speed and/or direction as parts of a single stimulus. A common example of this is a flock of birds. When several birds fly in the same direction, we normally assume that they belong to a single group. Birds that fly in a different direction do not appear to be included in the said group. A marching band is another example that usually exhibits the gestalt law of common fate. Below is yet another example showing this principle [as the bubbles are grouped together in their movement off the page]."
Common Fate is often confused with Gestalt's Principle of Continuity. Common Fate is more about suggested movement while Continuity is about resting objects that are not continuing dynamic movement.
"The principle of good continuity holds that humans tend to perceive each of two or more objects as different, singular, and uninterrupted object even when they intersect. In other words, individuals tend to group together as well as organize curves, lines and other forms that are found in similar directions. However, those that establish changes in direction may be perceived as different objects. The alignment of the objects or forms plays a major role for this principle to take effect. This principle is well used by educators in teaching young kids on how to write the letters of the alphabet as well as draw images. Below is an example showing the Gestalt law of good continuity [as you follow and connect the lines in the pattern though they don't actually connect."
Below is the iconic album cover for The Beatles Abbey Road. This shows both Common Fate and Continuity. The 4 band members walking the same direction shows Common Fate. (Consider what would happen if one were walking the other way. This would be using the Law of Common Fate via violation of it.) The law of Continuity is used on the smaller broken white lines in the middle of the street (not the crosswalk). We continue those as one line. It is easy to confuse the Law of Common Fate and Continuity. But in this case, the 4 band members are only Law of Common Fate while the lines in the street could be argued to show both.