After you've gone through rounds of revisions on the computer, PRE-PRESS FILE PREP is the next step. Preparing a digital file to go to press, whether that be OfficeMax or (more importantly!) an offset press, is an important step in the process. If not executed properly, unnecessary costs and missed deadlines occur.
Even designers who have done this many times often use a File Prep Checklist to double-check all steps have been taken. Though things like correct color modes and DPI come naturally via experience, pre-press is a final step that must be respected.
Please see the following links to informative sites or PDFs that are a good start to creating your own checklist. Students who are in ART-2413 Typography will become more familiar with pre-press file prep in ART-2423 Print & Publication Design.
NO SAMPLES; HOWEVER, STUDENTS MUST PRINT THE PDF AND ADHERE IN THEIR ART-2413 SKETCHBOOK.
"A Gutenberg Diagram is a diagram that describes the general pattern followed by the eyes when looking at evenly distributed, homogenous information [please note that this follows Western reading patterns, suggesting there is a connection with the way that words are read from top left across a page with the ending of the page in the bottom right.]....Designs that follow the diagram work in harmony with reading gravity and return readers to a logical axis of organization, improving reading rhythm and comprehension...
The Gutenberg Diagram divides a display medium into 4 quadrants: the primary area at the top left, the terminal area at the bottom right, the strong fallow area at the top right, and the weak fallow area at the bottom left. Western readers begin naturally at the primary optical area and move across and down the display medium in a series of sweeps to the terminal area. Each sweep begins along an axis of orientation- a horizontal line created by aligned elements, text lines, or explicit segments - and proceeds in a left-to-right direction. The strong and weak fallow areas lie outside this path and receive minimal attention unless visually emphasized. The tendency to follow this path is metaphorically attribute to reading gravity ("gravity of the page") - the top left to bottom right habit formed in readers.
There is not significant empirical evidence that it contributes to improved reading rates or comprehension; however, it is still considered an important design theory.
image 1 from: http://www.studiodino.com/images/gutenberg.jpg
image 2 from: http://files.coloribus.com/files/adsarchive/part_1611/16110305/file/hovis-bread-pumpkin-1024-58266.jpg
mage 3 from: http://www.catalystmarketers.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/dunkin_donuts_print_ad.jpg
text from: Universal Principle of Design by Ludwell, Hkoden, Butler.
STUDENTS: ONE SAMPLE OF GUTENBERG DIAGRAM
Please post below with a website address displaying an image. Then explain how this sample follows the theory proposed by a Gutenberg Diagram. The image does NOT need to have the diagram over the top; however, you must explain how it follows the diagram's Primary Optical Area to the Terminal Area. HINT: Google Print Ad and not Gutenberg Diagram. A good print ad will follow the theory while "Gutenberg Diagram" will just show the diagram.
Text from: http://www.cambridgeincolour.com/tutorials/rule-of-thirds.htm
Image 1: http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/rule-of-thirds-grid.gif
Image 2: http://www.photographymad.com/files/images/lighthouse-rule-of-thirds.jpg
Image 3: http://www.apnphotographyschool.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/rule-of-thirds.jpg
STUDENTS: ONE SAMPLE OF RULE/Power OF THIRDS
Please post below with a website address displaying an image. Then explain how this sample displays the Rule of Thirds. It can be an example in an information graphic, web page, or image of print. Whatever you choose, it must be delivering information. THIS CANNOT BE THE SAME SAMPLE FROM EARLIER THIRDS POST (under Fibonacci's Sequence).
The Exposure Effect states that repeated exposure to stimuli for which people have neutral feelings will increase the likeability of the stimuli. (Also known as mere exposure effect, repetition-validity effect, frequency-validation effect, truth effect, and repetition effect.) For example, the more a song or slogan is repeated, the more popular it is likely to become. The strongest exposure effects are seen with icons, people, and auditory stimuli. The exposure effect gradually weakens as the number of presentations increases. The exposure effect only applies to things which have a neutral or positive association, as things with a negative association repeated will often amplify negative perception.
Familiarity plays an important role in aesthetic appeal and acceptance. People like things more when frequently exposed to them. For example, initial exposure to Gustave Eiffel with the Eifffel Tower (1st image above), Picasso with his Cubist works (2nd image above), and Frank Lloyd Wright's Guggenheim Museum (3rd image above) were all met with great resistance. However, now all three are widely accepted as brilliant and beautiful because familiarity with the work increased and resulted in greater popularity and acceptance. images above L-R from:
http://wordlesstech.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Building-the-Eiffel-Tower.jpg; http://echostains.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/picasso-avignon-reduce.jpg; http://www.newyorker.com/images/2009/05/25/p465/090525_r18486b_p465.jpg
The exposure effect has always been a primary tool of politicians. Ubiquitous positive depictions increase the likability and support of political leaders. Imagine if my Google search for images of President Obama produced multiple images of a confused or angry leader! - all images from Google Search: Obama; 27 Oct 13
Of course advertising, design, and marketing use the exposure effect constantly. This is where consistency is also important. When something is different from the repeated exposure, the effect is nullified. See the logos above, all of which have gained significant brand equity even to the point of lifestyle identification being intertwined with a brand's persona. Though the logos have changed over the years, there have rarely been significant shifts without consequence.
Beyond logos, advertising can use the exposure effect to enhance perceived credibility and generally enhance the way people think and feel about a message or a product. This can be done with everything from a logo to an entire campaign including advertising, social media, and collateral.
logos image from http://www.demilked.com/magazine/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/famous-logos-past-future-thumb640.jpg
all text above paraphrased from Universal Principles of Design; Lidwell, Holden, Butler
STUDENTS: NO SAMPLES THIS WEEK.
"Chunking is a technique of combining many units of information into a limited number of units or chunks, so that the information is easier to process and remember." This is what visual hierarchy does for information delivery. Chunking is most visible on work that must be seen and processed for communication all at once. This can be an information graphic, a web home page, a printed poster, or similar item. An entire website or book can be broken apart to not be in such immediate need of chunking; however, all items should be aware of the visual hierarchy to deliver information well. Remember, if everything is "screaming", nothing will be "heard".
Below is a well-organized explanation of chunking, specifically for digital devices.
STUDENTS: One sample of chunking
Please post below with a website address displaying an image. Then explain how this sample displays Chunking. It can be an example in an information graphic, web page, or image of print. Whatever you choose, it must be delivering information.
Balance is concerned with the distribution of visual interest. In other words, what is where in a composition. There are two systems for achieving balance:
Above text paraphrased from http://daphne.palomar.edu/design/bsymm.html and http://daphne.palomar.edu/design/asymm.html
Images from http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_fY54okBt12U/TN3UPTrywSI/AAAAAAAACdE/vQ-5OctYWDE/s1600/symmetry+-asymmetry+ex.jpg
STUDENTS: ONE SAMPLE EACH OF SYMMETRICAL AND ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE
"Highlighting is a technique for bringing attention to an area of text or image." Though this appears to be similar to what one does when using a highlighting pen to bring out certain important areas of a course textbook, the design concept is much more. It controls visual hierarchy in the read of a piece, whether that be via imagery, text, or white space. NOTE: be conservative with highlighting, as highlighting effects are diluted as more is calling for attention. As I tell the class, "If everything is 'yelling', nothing will be 'heard'." - from Universal Principles of Design, Lidwell, Holden, Butler
Common highlighting techniques:
1 > Bold, Italics, Underlining
2 > Typeface NOTE: Avoid using different fonts as a highlighting technique. Though this is a possibility, it usually disrupts the aesthetics of good typography (even for those of us who aren't die-hard Modernist fans!). Instead, try capitals.
3 > Color
4 > Inversing NOTE: This is a very disruptive technique. Use sparingly.
5 > Blinking (like it sounds, so not really possible on print)
Image 1: http://payload.cargocollective.com/1/1/33092/1619011/type_2.jpg
Image 2: http://thefeteblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/red-winter-wedding-10.jpg
Image 3: http://ambalaj.se/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/60-bag-packaging-design-biodegradable1.jpg
Image 4: http://brettmaurer.me/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/IMG_0811.jpg
STUDENTS: One sample of highlighting
Please post below with a website address displaying an image. Then explain how this sample displays highlighting. DO NOT use a picture of something using an actual (yellow, etc.) highlighter. Push further.
These are technically 2 separate posts, but I've placed them together because you should know both of these already. Think of this as a review of 2 relative topics. Both are concerned with composition.
RULE OF THIRDS:The rule of thirds is a guideline which applies to the process of composing visual images such as designs, films, paintings, and photographs. The guideline proposes that an image should be imagined as divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elements should be placed along these lines or their intersections. Proponents of the technique claim that aligning a subject with these points creates more tension, energy and interest in the composition than simply centering the subject would.
- text from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_thirds
GOLDEN RATIO: The golden ratio, also known as the golden proportion, golden mean, golden section, golden number, and divine proportion is the division of a given unit of length into two parts such that the ratio of the shorter to the longer equals the ratio of the longer part to the whole or, when a line is divided such that the ratio of the longer part of the line to the whole is exactly the same ratio as the shorter part of the line is to the longer part.
The Golden Rectangle can be used to create a spiral, the Golden Spiral (also see Fibonacci Sequence). Starting with one Golden Rectangle, a second Golden Rectangle can be attached to the first using the longest side of the rectangle, side A as the shortest side B of the next rectangle. To this end the second rectangle is constructed 90 degrees perpendicular to the first rectangle. If this process is continued, called the spiraling of the Golden Rectangle, a curved line can be drawn through the corners of the rectangles creating the Golden Mean spiral. The spiraling of the Golden Mean spiral continues indefinitely in inward and outward directions, it's getting smaller and smaller spiraling inwards and getting bigger and bigger spiraling outwards. -image and all Golden Ratio text from: http://www.tokenrock.com/explain-golden-ratio-177.html
STUDENTS: ONE sample of Power of thirds
Please post below with a website address displaying an image. Then explain how this sample displays the correct Power of Thirds.
[COGNITION: Cognition is a faculty for the processing of information, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. Cognition, or cognitive processes, can be natural or artificial, conscious or unconscious.
[DISSONANCE: lack of agreement; especially : inconsistency between the beliefs one holds or between one's actions and one's beliefs]
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE is the state of mental discomfort that occurs when a person's attitudes, thoughts, or beliefs (i.e. cognitions) conflict. If two cognitions agree with one another, there is consonance, and a state of comfort results. If two cognitions disagree with one another, there is dissonance, and a state of discomfort results.
One way people alleviate cognitive dissonance is by reducing the importance of dissonance cognitions. Advertising uses this often. See the following link to "ADVERTISING: WHAT PSYCHOLOGICAL TRICKS DO THEY USE?"
Consider cognitive dissonance in the design of advertising and marketing campaigns, or any other context where influence and persuasion is key. Use consonant and dissonant information when attempting to change beliefs. Engage people to invest their time, attention, and immediate mechanisms to alleviate the dissonance.
There is also cognitive dissonance per aesthetics. To go even further, see this TED talk:
TEDxCanberra - Ash Donaldson - Cognitive dissonance
Students: one sample of cognitive dissonance
You may link to an ad campaign online, individual ad, or a piece of artwork. For any of the samples, explain the cognitive dissonance that is shown and explain how it encourages involvement from the viewer to either search for consonance or be touched/troubled by the dissonance.
Mnemonic Device can also be used to connect what is in the image in relation to what is actually being referenced, BUT the TRICK is to not be TOO "see-and-say". Design uses mnemonic devices for just enough of a reference without just being the color red to remind you of the color red. The Grow The Game works because it references the growth of a plant, as well as multiple members of a team - neither without actually being a plant or people. Once the logo is learned, the logo itself becomes a mnemonic device.
-image from http://growthegame.com/files/2011/11/grow_the_game_post11.jpg
Find an image on the web and paste in the site's address. I prefer just the image's address, but a page is OK. In the comments below this, explain how this is a mnemonic device per graphic design. Explain it correctly! This is a difficult one!
Please check this each Monday of the semester for information. Put this in your head. Use it. Live it. Be a great designer.